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Historical

أعـدل وأعجب محاكمة في التاريخ الإنساني

أعـدل وأعجب محاكمة في التاريخ الإنساني!!! 

نادى الغلام : يا قتيبة !!! ( هكذا بلا لقب)

فجاء قتيبة، وجلس هو وكبير الكهنة أمام القاضي (جُميْع).

ثم قال القاضي : ما دعواك يا سـمرقندي ؟

قال : إجتاحنا قتيبة بجيشه، ولم يدعـُنا إلى الإسلام ويُمهلنا حتى ننظر في أمرِنا ..

إلتفتَ القاضي إلى قتيبة، وقال : وما تقول في هذا يا قتيبة ؟

قال قتيبة : الحرب خدعة!  وهذا بلدٌ عظيم، وكل البلدان من حوله كانوا يقاومون، ولم يدخلوا الإسلام، ولم يقبلوا بالجزية ...

قال القاضي : يا قتيبة هل دعوتهم للإسلام أو الجزية أو الحرب ؟

قال قتيبة : لا ، إنما باغتناهم لِما ذكرتُ لك ...

قال القاضي : أراك قد أقررت ، وإذا أقرّ المُدّعي عليه انتهت المحاكمة.

                        يا قتيبة، ما نصرَ اللهُ هذه الأمة إلا بالدين، واجتناب الغدر، وإقامة العدل .

ثم قال : قضينا بإخراج جميع المسلمين من أرض سـمرقند من حكام وجيوش ورجال وأطفال ونساء، وأن تـُترك الدكاكين والدور ،  وأنْ لا يبقَ في سـمرقند أحدٌ ، على أنْ يُنذرهم المسلمون بعد ذلك !!!

لم يصدّق الكهنة ما شـاهدوه وسمعوه ، فلا شهود ولا أدلـّة، ولم تدُم المحاكمة إلا دقائقاً معدودة ، ولم يشعروا إلا والقاضي والغلام وقتيبة ينصرفون أمامهم ،  وبعد ساعات قليلة سـمع أهل سـمرقند بجـَلـَبـَةٍ تعلو ، وأصواتٍ ترتفع، وغبار يعمّ الجنَبات ، ورايات تلوح خلال الغبار ، فسألوا ، فقيل لهم: إنَّ الحـُكم قد نُفِذَ ، وأنَّ الجيش قد انسحب!!! في مشهدٍ تقشعر منه جلود الذين شـاهدوه أو سـمعوا به ...

وما إنْ غرُبت شمسُ ذلك اليوم إلا والكلاب تتجول بطرق سـمرقند الخالية ، وصوت بُـكـاءٍ يُسمع في كل بيتٍ على خروج تلك الأمة العادلة الرحيمة من بلدهم ، ولم يتمالك الكهنة وأهل سـمرقند أنفسهم لساعات أكثر ، حتى خرجوا أفواجاً وكبير الكهنة أمامهم باتجاه معسكر المسلمين، وهم يردّدون شــهادة أن (لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله) ...

فيا لله ما أعظمها من قصة ، وما أنصعها من صفحة من صفحات تاريخنا المشرق ، أرأيتم جيشاً يفتح مدينة ثم يشتكي أهل المدينة للدولة المنتصرة ، فيحكم قضــاءُهـا على الجيش الظافر بالخروج ؟

والله لا نعلم شبيهــاً لهذا الموقف لأمة من الأمم .

بقي أن تعرف أن هذه الحادثة كانت في عهد الخليفة الصالح عمر بن عبدالعزيز (رحمه الله)

حيث أرسل أهلُ سـمرقند رسـولـَهـم إليه، بعد دخول الجيش الإسلامي لأراضيهم، دون إنذار أو  دعوة.

فكتب مع رسولهم للقاضي: أن احكم بينهم.

فكانت هذه القصة ألتي تعتبر من الأساطير


المرجع:

قصة من كتاب (قصص من التاريخ) للشيخ الأديب علي الطنطاوي رحمه الله

أصل القصة من ( فتوح البلدان ) للبلاذري صفحة 411 . طبعة مصر لعام 1932م

 

 

The Arab Influence on the Italian Renaissance

Since much of it happened by way of southern Italy, I think I can justify sneaking it in, here.

This is an early-15th-century Persian copy of the opening page of Book Four of Ibn Sina's (Avicenna) Canon of Medicine, written in the 11th century, parts of which were used in European medical schools as late as the 19th century. 

Dangling in the southern winter sky and very visible from my balcony in Naples is the great equatorial constellation of Orion. The second brightest star in that constellation is the red supergiant, Betelgeuse. (This is the first of a few familiar names coming up that no one knows how to pronounce. Another one is "Averroës.") Betelgeuse is 390 light years from my balcony and, thus, remote from the various fields of human conflict that are responsible for my knowing neither the pronunciation nor the original name of the star—thus, our high school astronomy club's cutesy mnemonic of "Beetle Juice." I don't recall ever learning that the name came from the Arabic bayt al jauza, meaning "in the house of the twins," referring to the Heavenly Twins, Castor and Pollux, hanging out right above Orion. 

Speaking of high school, I did not do well in mathematics, but I am willing to give Al-Khwarizmi (known to us as Algorizm!) (770 - 840) his credit if he takes a bit of my blame. I will take all the blame for not knowing who Chaucer was talking about in the Canterbury Tales, when, in praising the knowledge of the doctor on the trip, he reminded us that ye olde pilgrim sawbones was familiar not only with Hippocrates and Galen, but "Rhazes, Hali, Averroës and Avicenna."

It is convenient—but not a good idea—to pigeonhole our own cultural history into tidy episodes: The Renaissance, The Age of Reason, The Enlightenment, The This & That,  as if they had happened all of a sudden with no connection to anything else—as if Leonardo woke up one fine morning in 1500, looked at his homemade (obviously) hour-glass and said "Gee, it's the Renaissance; I'd better build a helicopter." The point of this entry, then, is simply to draw your attention to how interconnected European and Arabic culture used to be, and how there is a link between the glorious age of Arab science and culture (800-1100) and the beginnings of the Italian Renaissance. (I am not making the post hoc, ergo propter hoc mistake of saying that that which comes first necessarily causes that which comes second. I am simply saying it's a good idea to know what came before you—Bonum est quod ante te evenit scire (I think) .

After Islam's rapid spread from Spain to India, Muslims founded the city of Baghdad in 800, and it is here that the Muslim quest for knowledge begins, the manifestation of an insatiable curiosity (to use Einstein's choice phrase from many centuries later) "to figure out how the Old Man runs the universe." It is in Baghdad that the Muslims founded their great school of translation, the incredible ambition of which was to translate as much as they could find of science, astronomy, mathematics, music, geography and philosophy—whatever remained of Classical Greek knowledge. It meant going even further afield—to India—to study the mathematics and philosophy of those who had written in classical Sanskrit centuries earlier.

In 800 this was by no means an easy task. Much classical Greek writing had not survived the centuries of neglect by Christians inimical to "pagan" thought. As early as the year 500, the great library at Alexandria was a ruin and, a few years later, Justinian closed Plato's Academy in Athens because it was a hotbed of pagan (non-Christian) philosophy. Arab scholars, then, translated into Arabic the few Greek texts that remained, or translated from languages into which the Greek originals had previously been translated by scholars who had left Greece for parts east. These were mainly exiled Nestorian Christians from Greece, and Classical Greek scholars from Plato's academy who had fled to Persia, where they founded a great center of learning at Jundishapur (before the coming of Islam) and translated much of their material into Aramaic, the lingua franca of the Middle East at the time. After Baghdad, the Arabs later started equally fine centers of scholarship in Spain at Cordoba and Toledo.

Transmission of this glorious knowledge from the Muslim world into Italy happened primarily through Spain and Sicily; that is, the great courts of learning in Cordoba and the pre-Crusades court of Norman Sicily in the 12th century. It is in Sicily, particularly, that Norman tolerance provided for the coexistence of Byzantine Greek, Italian Christian, and Arab scholars. It was, perhaps, the last great period of human tolerance in European history.
 

 

Spanish Religious Intolerance

Spanish Religious Intolerance - How did it Start?!

In the aftermath of catastrophic events of World Trade Centres (at Twin Towers – New York) (11/9/2001) and that of Madrid commuter (March 2004), Chris Lowney, a successful Managing Director of JP Morgan & Co. (extending on 3 continents) wrote in his excellent book entitled: "A vanished World – Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Medieval Spain" [published by Oxford University Press in 2006]:

(Though Muslims, Christians, and Jews all worship the same God revealed to Abraham, that common bond paled in their eyes before the differences dividing the three faiths. These 3 monotheistic religions share not only a lineage back to Abraham [Jews, Christians, and Muslims share the blood of Abraham through their leading prophets: Moses, Jesus (are both from the progeny of Abraham's wife Sarah), and Muhammad (a direct descendent of Ishmael from Abraham's wife Hagar)] but also the ritual practice of pilgrimage. Long before ninth-century Christians first journeyed to Santiago de Compostela [see below], devout Muslims were traveling to Mecca for the Hajj and devout Jews to Jerusalem for Pilgrimage… In all 3 faiths, the pilgrim's journey metaphorically embodies deeper human yearnings. Only a tiny handful will be privileged to know in an earthly lifetime whether our irreconcilable dogmatic differences, once illuminated under the pure light of perfect Truth, will somehow be reconciled by some logic we Muslims, Christians, and Jews cannot humanly comprehend. Until then, we apparently suffer the tyranny of those brutally incompatible facts: either Jesus is the Messiah or Jesus is not; either Muhammad is the Prophet, or Muhammad is not) (7). (The opening scene of the New Testament Acts of the Apostles relates a startling occurrence. The risen Jesus gathers his disciples, and "as they were looking on, he was lifted up, and a cloud took him out of their sight". Before ascending, Jesus imparts this final instruction: "You shall be my witness … to the end of the earth". The apostle James, Santiago in Spanish, took the instruction literally. His purported remains are today venerated in the small Spanish town bearing his name, Santiago de Compostela [Compostela means 'field of stars' in reference to burial site].

 

Religious Tolerance is Islamic Invention and Practice

'Religious  Tolerance'  is  an  Islamic  Invention 

practiced routinely throughout history

The concept of 'Religious Tolerance' is a purely Original Islamic invention and was practiced by Muslims allover Islamic World (Caliphate) and throughout Islamic history; many of the Caliphs took non-Muslim doctors as their private Court Physicians, without coercing them into Islam.  God Most High says:

"Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands outs clear from Error" . Verse 2:256 of Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow)

"If they charge you with falsehood, say: 'For me are my deeds and for you are your deeds! You are free from responsibility for what I do, and I for what you do' " . Verse 10:41 of Surat Yunus (Jonah)

"Say, 'The Truth is from your Lord' Let him who will, believe, and let him who will, reject (it)' " Verse 18:29 of Surat Al-Kahf (The Cave)

"To you (kafirs or non-believers) be your Way (Religion), and to me mine" . Verse 109:6 of Surat Al-Kafirun (Those who reject Faith)

Such concept of 'Religious Tolerance' is historically connected with Prophet Muhammad himself.

 
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