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Natural History

Bracing for Islamic Creationism

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Hameed-Science-Creationism.pdf


 

Linguistic Legacy of Scientific Racism (or Social Darwinism)

The so-called Scientific Racism had deeply influenced the English and the European (especially Spanish) languages and provided their vocabulary with an array of shameful illegal words, so appalling to the extent that the present Europe tries to consider them obsolete and to sweep that particular history (attached to such words) under the carpet, under the legal influence of European Convention on Human Rights (drafted in 1950 and entered into force on 3 September 1953) and British Human Rights Act 1998 that provide the fundamental rights and freedoms, including: the right to life; freedom from torture and degrading treatment; freedom from slavery and forced labour; freedom of thought, conscience and religion, and freedom to express your beliefs; and the right to liberty.

The American Professor Ward Churchill in his book “A Little Matter of Genocide – Holocaust and Denial in the Americas 1492 to the Present” (published by City Lights Books, San Francisco, 1997) explained on pages 107-108, that colonial regimes throughout South and Central America, as well as Mexico and the south-western portion of the present-day United States, settled in to consolidating the New Order within their domains in accordance with rigid and often elaborate racial codes.  Alexis de Tocqueville quoted: (This man born in degradation, this stranger brought by slavery into our midst, is hardly recognized as sharing the common features of humanity.  His face appears to us hideous, his intelligence limited, and his tastes low; we almost take him to be some intermediary between man and beast).  In a portion of one code, effective in 18th century New Spain, which is illustrative of all such lists compiled in Iberian-occupied America [illustrating the hierarchy of mixtures caste s or  Casta, starting from the 3 pure original races in America: Caucasian white European, Black African, and Amerindian]:

  1. Spaniard (Espanol) and Indian [Amerindian] beget Mestizo
  2. Mestizo [or Mestiza woman] and Spanish (Espanola or Esapanol) beget Castizo
  3. Castizo woman [or man] and Spaniard [Espanol or Espanola] beget Spaniard
  4. Spanish woman [or man] and Negro [man or woman] beget Mulatto
  5. Spaniard [or woman] and mulatto woman [or man] beget Morisco
  6. Morisco woman and Spaniard beget Albino (or Chino)  
  7. Spaniard and albino woman beget Torna atras
  8. Indian [Amerindian] and torna atras woman beget Lobo [Sambo or Zambo]
  9. Lobo and Indian [Amerindian] woman beget Zambiago
  10. Zambiago and Indian [Amerindian] woman beget Cambujo
  11. Cambujo and Mulatto beget Albarazado
  12. Albarazado and Mulatto beget barcino
  13. Barcino and Mulatto beget Coyote (literally, means North American wolf)
  14. Coyote woman and Indian[Amerindian] beget Chamiso
  15. Chamiso woman and Mestizo beget Coyote Mestizo
  16. Coyote Mestizo and Mulatto woman beget Ahi te estas

In colonial Mexico, further complex pattern of social "racial" structure complete this shameful nomenclature (originally from the work of Nicolas Leon, 1924, Las Castas Mestizaje Del Mexico Colonial o Nueva España, quoted in M.D. Olien, 1973, Latin Americans: Contemporary Peoples and Their Cultural Traditions, pp. 94):

  1.    Morisco man and Espanola beget Chino.
  2.    Chino man with Indian [Amerindian] woman beget Salta atras.
  3.    Salta atrás and Mulatto woman beget Lobo (literally, means wolf from lupus).
  4.    Lobo man and Chino woman beget Jíbaro (or Gibaro)
  5.    Jíbaro man and Mulata woman beget Albarazado.
  6.    Albarazado man and Negra woman beget Cambujo.
  7.    Cambujo man and Indian woman beget Sambaigo (or Zambiago).
  8.    Sambaigo man and Loba woman beget Calpamulato.
  9.    Calpamulato man and Cambuja woman beget Tente en el aire.
  10.  Tente en el aire man and Mulata woman beget  No te entiendo.
  11.  No te entiendo man and India woman beget Torna atras.

Indians were placed on the very bottom rung of these hierarchies, and were in many cases defined virtually out of existence.  This attitude represents an extreme European obsessive-compulsive behaviour towards the non-Europeans. 

Today, the overt caste systems have been overturned by legislation, but the social prejudices and economic exploitation continue unabated.  Even though overt racial oppression is no longer permissible by law, people may still hold personal opinions about members of other races based upon preconceived ideas.   In 1976, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) conducted a study to stratify people on racial basis; they ask people to identify their own skin colour, resulting in 134 terms, listed in alphabetical order.

(Retrieved from the 'Introduction to Paradise Dictionary' by Prof Dr M Al-Fallouji, Chapter 3: Racism between two Languages - A Critical Review)

 

ميراث اللغـة الإنجليزية العـنصري البغـيض وطبقات المنبوذين - مخلفات الدارونية الإجتماعية

إنّ ما يسمى بالعنصرية العلمية قـد أثرت تأثيراً بالغ الخطورة في اللغة الإنجليزية والأوروبية (خصوصاً الإسبانية) وزودت مُفـرداتها اللغوية بكوكبةٍ  كبيرةٍ من الكلمات العنصرية المُخزية، بل والمُروّعة لدرجة أنّ أوروبة اليوم تحاول عـدّها كلمات مندثرة مهجورة من أجل طمر وطمس تلك الحقبة التاريخية (المرتبطة بهذه الكلمات) وإخفاءها تحت بساط البحث، وذلك بسبب الوطأة القانونية للميثاق الأوروبي لحقوق الإنسان (التي وُضِعـت مسودته عام 1950 ودخل حيز التطبيق في 3 أيلول 1953) وقانون حقوق الإنسان البريطاني لعام 1998 اللذين يتضمنان الحقوق والحريات الأساسية الجوهرية المكفولة وتشمل: حـقّ الإنسان في الحياة؛ والحقّ في التحرر من التعـذيب والمعاملة المهينة؛ والتحرر من رقّ العـبودية والعـمل الإجباري؛ مع حرية الفكر والضمير والدين وحرية التعبير عن المعتقدات؛ وحق الإنسان في التحرر (العيش في وطن حر دونما استعمار).

شرح البروفيسور وورد تشرشل في كتابه "مسألة صغـيرة حول الإبادة الجماعـية – محرقة الإبادة الكاملة وإنكارهـا في الأمريكتين من عام 1492 وحتى الوقت الحاضر" (نشرته كتب سيتي لايت في سان فرانسيسكو 1997) في صفحة 107 – 108، بأنّ الأنظمة الاستعمارية في الأمير كتين الجنوبية والوسطى، مع المكسيك والجزء الجنوب- الغربي من الولايات المتحدة المعاصرة، قد استعمرت البلاد لأجل تقوية النظام الجديد في المقاطعات الخاضعة لنفوذها حسب قواعد عنصرية صارمة ومفصلة ومعـقـدة ومُـشينة.   سـرد الكاتب الأمريكي أليكسيس دي توكفيل هذه المقولة: (هذا الرجل المولود في المهانة، هذا الغـريب بيننا والدخيل إلينا عن طريق الرقّ (العـبودية)، بالكاد يمكن عـدّه مشتركاً معـنا في مزايا الإنسانية العامة.  فوجهُه يبدو شــنيعـاً لنا، ذكائه محدود، وذوقه خسيس؛ ونحن على الغالب نعـدّه أشبه بكائن وسيط بين الإنسان والبهائم).  وفي جزء من إحدى قواعـد القانون النافـذ في اسبانية الجديدة [أي الحكم الإسباني في أميركة الجنوبية والوسطى] في القرن الثامن عشر ، يوضح كل هذه القوائم المُصنفة في أميركة المحتلة من قبل الآيبيريين (الاسبان والبرتغاليين) [توضح تدرج المنبوذين المُخـلـّطين من علاقات وزيجات مختـلطة بين الأعـراق الثلاثة الصافية الأصيلة في أميركة: القوقازي الأبيض، الأفريقي الأسود، والهندي الأميركي]:

1.                  اسباني مع هـندية [أميركية] ينجبان  مَستيزو (مزيجُ أي مُخلّط)

2.                  مَستيزو (رجل أو امرأة) مع امرأة اسبانية (أو اسباني) ينجبان  كاستيزو

3.                  امرأة أو رجل  كاستيزو مع اسباني أو اسبانية ينجبان  اسباني

4.                  امرأة اسبانية أو اسباني مع  زنجي أو زنجية ينجبان  مولاتـو (مولـّد)

5.                  اسباني أو اسبانية مع امرأة مولاتـو (مولـّدة أو مولّـد) ينجبان  موريسكـو (مغـربي)

6.                  امرأة موريسكـية  مع اسباني ينجبان  ألبـيـنـو

7.                  اسباني  مع امرأة  ألبـيـنـية ينجبان  تـورنا أتـراس

8.                  هـندي [أميركي] مع امرأة  تورنا أتراس ينجبان  لـوبـو (بمعـنى الذئب)

9.                  لـوبـو  مع امرأة هـندية ينجبان  زامـبـياگــو

10.              زامـبـياگــو مع امرأة هـندية [أميركية] ينجبان  كامـبـيـوجـو

11.              كامـبـيـوجـو مع امرأة مولاتـو (مولـّدة) ينجبان  ألبارازادو

12.              ألبارازادو  مع امرأة مولاتـو (مولـّدة) ينجبان  بارســيـنـو

13.              بارسـيـنـو  مع مولاتـو (مولـّد أو مولـّدة) ينجـبان كـويـوت

14.              امرأة  كـويـوت مع هـندي [أميركي] ينجبان  شــامـيـسـو

15.              امرأة  شـامـيـسـية مع  مَستيزو ينجبان  كـويـوت مَسـتيزو

16.              كويوت مَسـتيزو  مع امرأة مـولاتـو (مولـّدة)  ينجبان  آهي تي إيـستاس

وتكمل أسماء هذه القائمة المُـشينة نظام معقـد آخـر لهـذا التركيب العـنصري الاجتماعـي في مُسـتعـمرة مكسـيكـو (وردت أصلاً في بحث نيكولاس ليون في 1924 (لاس كاستاس مَستيزج ديل مكسيكو كولونيال أو نيوفا اسبانا)، تمّ اقـتـبـاســه في م. د. أوليان 1973، الأمريكان اللاتينيون: الشعـوب المعـاصرة وعـاداتهم الثـقافـيــة، صفحة 94):

17.        موريسكو (مغـربي) مع اسبانية ينجبان  چـيـنـو

18.       چـيـنـو مع هـندية أمريكية ينجبان  سالتا أتراس

19.       سالتا أتراس مع امرأة مولاتـو (مولـّدة) ينجبان لـوبـو

20.       لـوبـو مع امرأة چـيـنـو (أي چـيـنـا) ينجبان  جـيـبـارو

21.       جـيـبـارو  مع امرأة مولاتـو (مولـّدة) ينجبان ألبارازادو

22.       ألبارازادو  مع امرأة سـوداء ينجبان كامبيوجـو  

23.       كامبيوجـو  مع هـندية أمريكية ينجبان سـامـبـيـوجـو

24.       سـامـبـيـوجـو  مع امرأة لـوبـو  ينجبان  كالپـا مـولاتــو

25.       كالـپـا مـولاتــو مع امرأة  كامبـيـوجـو  ينجبان  تـنـتي إنلا أير 

26.       تـنـتي إنلا أير  مع امرأة مولاتـو (مولـّدة)  ينجبان  نـو تي إنـتـيـنـدو

27.       نـو تي إنـتـيـنـدو  مع هـندية أمريكية  ينجبان  تـورنـا أتراس

وُضِعَ هنود أميركة الأصليين في الحضيض الأسفل من تدرج هذه القوائم، وفي العـديد من الحالات يعـدون عـملياً لا وجود لهم البتة. إنّ هذا الموقف يمثل أقصى حالات الوسوسة القسرية الأوروبية نحو غير الأوروبيين. واليوم وإنْ أُُسقِطـَت أنظمة المنبوذين قانونياً، لكن التحـيّز الاجتماعـي المُجحف والاستغلال الاقتصادي لا زال مستمرأً لا يهدأ.  بالرغم من أن القمع العنصري المُعـلـن لم يعـد مسموحاً به قانونياً، لكن الناس لا زالوا محتفظين بآرائهم  الشخصية نحو الأعـراق الأخرى بناءاً على أفكار متحيّزة مُسـبقة.  في عام 1976، قام المعهد البرازيلي للجغرافية والإحصاء بدراسة لتصنيف الناس على أساس عرقي من خلال سؤالهم لتعـيين ألوان جلودهم، والذي انتهى إلى 134 مصطلحاً رُتـّـبَـت ترتيباً أبجدياً.  

 

True Islamic Evolution - Facts before, above, and beyond Darwin's Theory of Evolution - 3

The True Facts of Evolution                      

But Allah also states the true fact of evolution, in terms of ‘Embryological Evolution’ in the wonderful Qur’anic description in beautiful plain Arabic language:

(And indeed We created man (Adam) out of quintessence of clay (water and earth).  Then We made him (the offspring of Adam) as a Nutfah (mixed drops of the male sperms and female sexual ova discharge - placed) in a safe place of rest (firmly fixed to the womb of the woman).  Then We made the Nutfah into Alaqah (a hanging leech-like clot), then We made Alaqah into a little lump of flesh (foetus), then We made out of the little lump of flesh, bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We developed out of it another creation. So blessed is Allah, the Best to create!  After that, surely, you will die. Then (again) surely, on the Day of Judgment, you will be raised up).                                      Verse 23:12-16 of Surat Al-Muminun (The Believers)

 

The similarity between some embryological stages of the animals is not evidence (as Haeckel said) for the evolution of the adults of these animals from each others.

Furthermore, Islam confirms another true fact of ‘Evolution of Human Age’ from birth to death, passing through the stages of intra-uterine foetus, to newly-born baby, to child, to adult, to elderly:

 

(O mankind! If you are in doubt about the resurrection, then verily, We have created you (Adam) from dust, then from a Nutfah (mixed drops of the male sperms and female sexual ova discharge i.e. the offspring of Adam), then from Alaqah (leech-like clot) then from Mudghah (morsel or a little morsel lump of flesh) – some formed and some unformed (as in the case of miscarriage) – in order that We may manifest (Our Power and Ability to do what We will) to you. And We cause whom We will to remain in the wombs for an appointed term, then We bring you out as babes, then (foster you) that you may reach your age of full strength. And some of you are called to die, and some are sent back to the feeblest old age, so that they know nothing after having known (much).  And (further) you see the earth barren (lifeless), but when We pour down water (rain) on it, it is stirred (to life), and it swells and put forth every kind of beautiful growth (in pairs)).                                    Verse 22:5 of Surat Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage)

 

Islam also, states the ‘Transition of Human Life between Four Places’: from foetal stage in the uterus, to his life in this world, to the life in the grave (burzukh, from the time of his death till the Day of Judgement), and finally to the eternal life hereafter (either in Paradise or in Hell).  And in this, there is a proof the spirit or soul, once created, it will never perish; thus Allah says:

 

(It is Allah Who has created you, then provided you with sustenance (in this worldly life), then He will cause you to die; then (again) He will give you life (on the Day of Resurrection). Is there any of your (false) partners (of Allah) who can do any single one of these things? Glory to Him! And High is He above all the partners they associate (with Him)).    

                                                                                         Verse 30:40 of Surat Ar-Rum (The Romans)

                                                                                                                                                     

Moreover, Islam refers to ‘Reversed Evolution’, opposite to Darwin’s theory of evolution from the small to the large; it states that Adam was very tall in stature and height when he was created. Thereafter the stature and height of children of Adam (Mankind) continued to reduce gradually until they reached our current stature and height (without change in shape or figure):   On the authority of Ubai bin Ka’ab, that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said:

“Allah had created Adam a tall man, with thick hair in the head, as if he is a sahooq date-palm (sahooq, meaning tall date-palm); when he tested the (forbidden fruit of) tree, his dress fell down, and his Awra (genital area) was shown first, and when he looked down at his exposed Awra, he was moving in agony, and a tree trapped his hair, but he pulled through, then Most Gracious (God) calls him: O Adam, are you running away from Me? When he heard the voice of Most Gracious (God), he said: O Lord, No but out of shyness”.  

                         Narrated by Ibn Abi Hatam 1/129, and Ibn Kathir in his interpretation of Qur’an

This means that with every following century, the stature and height of the human beings were shorter than the century before (the preceding century), until the stature reached the current height and stabilised at that level. Perhaps, the giant stature of earlier mankind (children of Adam) has a wisdom at that time: in order to proportionate with the height of the giant dinosaur animals of that time (which are now extinct together with the extinction of earliest giant generations of Adam).   

It is narrated by Abu Huraira that the Prophet (peace be upon him):

Allah created Adam, making him 60 cubits tall. When he created him, He said to him: ‘Go and greet that group of angels, and listen to their reply, for it will be your greeting (salutation) and the greeting of your offspring. So Adam said (to the angels):  ‘As-Salamu Alaikum’ (i.e. Peace be upon you).  The angels said: ‘As-Salamu Alaikum wa Rahmatu-l-lahi’. Any person who will enter Paradise will resemble Adam (in appearance and figure). People have been decreasing in stature, since Adam’s creation”. 

                                                    Sahih Al-Bukhari,  Hadith no. 543 under the Book of The Prophets

 

Squaring the Circle: Adapting Evolution to comply with Islam!

Islam is the eternal Truth in the purest form.  Attempts of the apologetics to make evolution theory compliant with Islam and vice versa are futile.  When a theory becomes an established scientific fact, then Islam accommodate such facts without contradiction.  But the Neo-Darwinists had manipulated evidence to support their biased conclusion, and had converted a theory (already in crisis) into a pseudo-science.

Those who attempted to make Islam compliant with Darwin’s Theory of Evolution relied on the misinterpretation of the following Qur’anic verses:

 

(Seeing that He has created you in diverse stages?)       Verse 71:14 of Surat Nuh (Noah)

According to Ibn Kathir interpretation of this verse of Qur’an, he said: (it is stated: It means from Nutfah, then Alaqah and then Mudghah, as stated by Scholars: Ibn Abbas, Ikrimah, Qitadah, Yahya bin Rafi’, al-Saddi, and Ibn Zaid)   See also Verses 23:12-14  and  Verse 22:5 .

 

As for Allah’s saying:

(Allah has created every moving (living) creature from water. Of them there are some that creep on their bellies, and some that walk on two legs, and some that walk on four. Allah creates what He wills. Verily, Allah is Able to do all things).      Verse 24:45 of Surat An-Nur (The Light)

 

There is nothing in this Verse to suggest that the animals were evolving from one primordial primitive organism, far from it: it appears that animals were created directly from water, independently from each other. Furthermore, this wonderful Qur’anic verse reveals that water is the origin of life, with a beautiful simplified classification of animals.  Verses like this, were always a source of inspiration for Muslim Scientists of Biology (See Below).    

As for the Verse of metamorphosis as a punishment for some of the children of Israel and witnessed by others among the Children of Israel:

(And well you knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday), We said to them: “Be you apes, despised and rejected”.

                                                                                           Verse 2:65 of Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow)

 

(Say: ‘Shall I point out to you something much worse than this, (as judged) By the treatment it received from Allah? Those who incurred the curse of Allah and His wrath, those of whom (some) He transformed into apes, and swine.  Those who worshipped Evil (Taghut): These are (many times) worse in rank, far more astray from the even Path!).

                                                             Verse 5:60 of Surat AlMa’idah (The Table Spread with Food)

 

These Verses don’t help evolutionists either, because Man was already present before and after the metamorphosis; in addition to the fact that there was No offspring from the metamorphosed subjects. Indeed, we were told what the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said in response to someone asking him whether the Monkeys and the swine, were the offspring of those who had suffered the metamorphosis.

Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: Verily, Allah did not cause the race of those who suffered metamorphosis, to grow or to be succeeded. Monkeys and swine had been in existence even before (the metamorphosis of the human beings).  

This is a true ‘Sahih’ Hadith, narrated by Abdullah bin Mas’oud, in Sahih Muslim under ‘Book of Fate’ section; it is also mentioned by Ibn Kathir in his interpretation of Qur’an  

(Retrieved from the 'Introduction to Paradise Dictionary' by Prof Dr M Al-Fallouji, Chapter 3: Racism between two Languages - A Critical Review)

 

True Islamic Evolution - Facts before, above, and beyond Darwin's Theory of Evolution - 2

 (Continued)

4.   Facts of Creation and Evolution in Islam

It is so regrettable that it was the theories of western clergymen (such as Robert Malthus, Friedrich Hegel, Samuel Morton, and Louis Agassiz) that provided the background and inspiration for Charles Darwin and Ernest Haeckel to put their theories of evolution, which in turn provided the background on basis of which, both the scientific racism (propounded by Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, Madison Grant, and Adolf Hitler), and Dialectical Materialism (propounded by Karl Marx, Stalin, and Mao Zedong) who proposed that ‘the religion is the opium of people’ and denied the presence of God and spread the atheism.  On basis of these theories, came the Nazis and Communism to convert the whole Mankind into experimental laboratory animals, and to end in millions of victims; and all this was based on human assumptions (guess) and on future unknown conjectures.

In fact, Harun Yahya’s ‘The Evolution Deceit’ (by Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd. London 3rd edition 2000, page 1( documented that Karl Marx made it clear that Darwin’s theory provided a solid ground for materialism and thus also for communism.  He also showed his sympathy to Darwin by dedicating Das Kapital, his greatest work, to him.  In German edition of the book, he wrote:

                                                                                    “From a devoted admirer to Charles Darwin”.

 

Thereafter, the atheists, who supported evolution and dialectical materialism, started to hijack the terms of creation and creatures (nature), and to change the concept of evolution (emptying it from its original meaning) and finally to relate everything to themselves, and presenting them in their conjectural theories which made as False Science, with the most serious consequences on the Humanity.  Allah The Most High says:

 

(And pursue not that of which you have no knowledge; for surely the hearing, the sight, and the heart, All of those shall be questioned of (by Allah)).

                                                                                 Verse 17: 36 of Surat Al-Isra’ (The Journey)

 

(But they have no knowledge thereof, they follow but a guess, and verily, guess is no substitute for the truth).                                                                     Verse 53: 28 of Surat An-Najm (The Star)

 

(And of knowledge, you (mankind) have been given only a little)

                                                                       Verse 17: 85 of  Surat Al-Isra’ (The Journey)

 

Allah states that true knowledge, particularly the science of the future and the unknown, is possessed by Allah alone: 

(Say (O Muhammad): “The knowledge of the time, it is with Allah alone”, and I am only a plain warner).                                                                         Verse 67: 26 of Surat Al-Mulk (Dominion)

 

Allah also reveals the grave error of those atheists, stating that their knowledge is nothing but conjecture and false science:

(And they say: “What is there but our life in this world?  we shall die and we live and nothing but time (Ad-Dahr) can destroy us”, but of that they have no knowledge: they merely conjecture)…

(Say: “It is Allah Who gives you life, then gives you death; then He will gather you together for the Day of Judgement about which there is no doubt”: but most men do not know).

                                                                        Verse 45:24-26 of Surat Al-Jathiyah (The kneeling)  

 

Islam is the eternal religion of Allah, and Qur’an is the word of Allah, thus it is decisively Final in knowledge and indication; In Islam one finds comfort and safe shelter, and moderation of  vision, but before or after that, it is the only and absolute truth with no falsehood can approach it from before or behind it (without any corruption).  The repercussions of the evolution theory does not lie in the biological evolution only, but in the notion of evolution, expanding its meaning to involve other unrelated fields, e.g. Hegel’s historical evolution,  Spencer’s social evolution, and Hitler’s racial evolution, and evolution of population struggle for resources by Malthus and Marx . Thus, everything is variable and nothing is constant; accordingly, there are no constant believes, values, nor morals, because everything evolve: and what was good yesterday may become bad today and vice versa.  This what Islam rejects, because Islamic believes and principle values and morals are all constant major issues; only the non-essentials minor issues are variable, such as dress, architect, and technologies.

The concept of God and the Oneness of Allah is the chief principle of all principles in Islam: 

(Such is Allah, your Lord in truth, So after the truth, what else can there be, save error? How then are you turned away?)                                               Verse 10: 32 of Surat Yunus (Jonah)

 

(That is because Allah, He is the Truth, and that which they invoke besides Him is Al-Batil (Falsehood), and that Allah, He is the Most High, the Most Great)

                                                                                                            Verse 31: 30 of Surat Luqman

And that Qur’an is the true word of Allah, the true deity:

(it is an honourable well fortified respected book(because it is Allah’s Speech, and He has protected it from corruption. Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it: (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise (Allah))

                                                         Verse 41:41-42 of Surat Fussilat (They are explained in detail)

 

 

Encouragement  to Reflect on the Creation:

Allah says: (See they not how Allah originates the creation, then repeats it. Verily, that is easy for Allah.  Say: “Travel in the land and see how (Allah) originated the creation, and then Allah will bring forth the creation of the Hereafter (i.e. resurrection after death). Verily, Allah is Able to do all things”)                                             Verse 29: 19-20 of Surat Al-Ankabut (The Spider)

 

(And on the earth are signs for those who have Faith with certainty. And also in your ownselves. Will you not then see?)     Verse 51:20-21 of Surat Adh-Dhariyat (The Winds that Scatters)

(We will show them Our Signs in the Universe, and in their own selves, until it become manifest to them that this is the truth. Is it not sufficient in regard to your Lord that He is a Witness over all things?)                                          Verse 41:53 of Surat Fussilat (They are explained in detail)

This is an order to us to look into the beginnings of creation, and into the earth, and into the construction of the human being; and that there is no objection whatsoever in Islam (or in Qur’an) for research and reflection on the creation.  Therefore, Islam encourages the study of cosmology and astronomy, and the study of fossils, as well as the study of Earth and its strata.

But we did not witness the beginning of creation, because it is unknown to us, and we do not know how this universe was created?   (I (Allah) made them not to witness the creation of heavens and the earth and not (even) their own creation, nor was I (Allah) to take the misleaders as helpers)

                                                                                           Verse 18:51 of Surat Al-Kahf (The Cave)

But we know it from Qur’an: the word of the Creator who witnessed it.

(Say (O Muhammad): “The knowledge of the time, it is with Allah alone”, and I am only a plain warner).   Verse 67: 26 of Surat Al-Mulk (Dominion)

 

 

Creation and Evolution of Universe (Cosmos Evolution):

Allah says: (Allah it is He Who has created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them in six days)                                                 Verse 32:4 of Surat As-Sajdah (The Prostration)

But six days are not like our solar days with 24 hours per day, since our days are according to earth revolution around the sun (solar day).  But in the beginning of creation, there was no sun and no moon (which were created afterwards).  The day here means: the day when a major event occurs such as Arab Days in pre-Islamic Jahiliyah era, when they used to call Day of Basoos, meaning the war of Basoos which lasted 40 years, and yet Arabs called it ‘Day’. Hence the six days during which this universe was created, are not solar days but universal days.     

(and verily, a day with your Lord is as a thousand years of what you reckon)

                                                                             Verse 22:47 of Surat Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage)

These days are therefore phases or era which may reach millions of years, Allah knows best.

Allah talks about the Evolution of this Universe, stating that at the very beginning to of the creation, this universe was one mass, which was then split open by explosion, separating its components from each other.  In cosmology, Lemaitre’s ‘Big Bang’ theory of the origin of the Universe has been accepted.  The Belgian Georges Lemaitre published his theory in Nature (Lemaître: The Beginning of the World from the Point of View of Quantum Theory, Nature” 127 (1931), n. 3210, pp. 706). Lemaitre also described his theory as "the Cosmic Egg exploding at the moment of the creation"; he proposed that the Universe has expanded from a an initial point, namely from primordial hot and dense initial condition at some finite time in the past (best available measurements in 2009 suggest that it occurred around 13.3 to 13.9 billion years ago), and continues to expand to this day.  Indeed, the distance between galaxy clusters is increasing today (everything must have been closer together in the past).  This is a proof that the Universe is neither pre-eternal nor post-eternal.

However, Qur’an precedes this discovery by 14 centuries; Allah states that the universe was created then evolved by expansion, into its current status; it also states that water is the origin of all living creatures:

 

(With power did We construct the heaven.  Verily, We are Able to expand the vastness of space (thereof)).                                          Verse 51:47 of Surat Adh-Dhariyat (The Winds that Scatter)

 

(Do not the unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before We clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing, Will they not then believe?)                                                     Verse 21:30 of Surat Al-Anbiyaa (The Prophets)

Indeed, about 72% of the surface of our Globe is still covered with water, the constitution of protoplasm is about 80-85% water. The original basis of living matter is liquid or semi-liquid and in a state of constant flux and instability, it is the fact that land animals, high vertebrates, including man, show, that in their embryological stage swim like fishes in the watery liquid inside the uterus.

Creation of Man:

Allah then states that Man was created as such, from the very beginning:

(He Who created all things in the best way, and He began the creation of man from clay)

Verse 32:7 of Surat As-Sajdah (The Prostration)

(Among His Signs is this, that He created you from dust; and then, behold, ye are men scattered (far and wide)!)                                                     Verse 30:20 of Surat Ar-Rum (The Romans)

 

(Behold, thy Lord said to the angels: “I will create a vicegerent on earth.”….And He taught Adam the names of all things….)                      Verse 2:30-31 of Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow)

 

(It is He Who had produced you from a single soul: then there is a resting place and a repository: We detail Our signs for people who understand)

                                                                                    Verse 6:98 of Surat Al-An’am (The Cattle)

(Behold, thy Lord said to the angels: “I am about to create man from clay”. “When I have fashioned him and breathed into him of My spirit, fall ye down in prostration unto him”.)

                                          Verse 38:71-72 of Surat Sad (being one of the Abbreviated Letters)

Thus the clay or the dust represents the material physical element of Man, plus another element: the spirit that Allah says: “When I have fashioned him and breathed into him of My spirit”.

 

Allah thereafter, affirms the fact of Creation in Pairs:

(O mankind! Fear your Guardian Lord, who created you from a single person, created out of it, his mate, and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women)

                                                                                         Verse 4:1 of Surat An-Nisaa (The Women)

It appears from such verses of Qur’an that Allah has created from clay and breathed into him His spirit; He then created Eve: there two schools of interpretation here.  There are scholars who thinks Eve was created from Adam’s rib and that is also present in the Genesis of Torah. However, there is another school who thinks that Eve was created from Adam’s -like (i.e. same species and construction) indicating that the Arabic word ‘out of it’ does not mean: part of it, but means: of Adam’s like (same species) as seen in Allah’s sayings ‘from among yourself’ and ‘of your nature’:

 

(And among His Signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that you may dwell in tranquillity with them, and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts); verily in that are signs for those who reflect).      Verse 30:21 of Surat Ar-Rum (The Romans)

(And Allah has made for you mates of your own nature, and made for you, out of them, sons and daughters and grandchildren, and provided for you sustenance of the best: will they then believe in vain things, and be ungrateful for Allah’s favours?)

                                                                        Verse 16:72 of Surat An-Nahl (The Bee)

Thus Eve was created from the same nature of Adam, in order that he will love her and she will love him, since both are of the same kind.

Furthermore, Allah confirms the creation of everything in pairs, from the start: male and female, whether they are animals or plants.  And this is a fascinating Qur’anic scientific discovery that plants are sexually paired (into male and female), just like animals (Qur’an reference to plant sexual pairing came 14 centuries earlier):  Allah Most High says:

(And has sent down water from the sky, with it We have produced diverse pairs of plants, each separate from the other)                                                                    Verse 20:53 of Surat Ta-Ha

 

(Glory to Allah, Who created in pairs all things that the earth produces, as well as their own (human) kind and (other) things of which they have no knowledge)

                                                                        Verse 36:36 of Surat Ya-sin (being Abbreviated Letters)

However, this paired principle of creation extends beyond humans, animals, and plants to include absolutely all creatures: from nigh and day, light and darkness, forces of gravity and repulsion, even the atom has positive and negative particles.  In the spiritual and emotional world too we see the paired principle: good and bad, love and hate, rest and work, justice and mercy; thus Allah says:

(And of everything We have created pairs: that ye may reflect)

                                                              Verse 51:49 of Surat Adh-Dhariyat (The Winds that Scatters)

But Allah also states that He is The Absolute Creator of everything in this universe, and that He is the Only One Unique in characters and differs from all His creatures, He is thus excluded from this paired principle and from procreation and children; None look like Him and He does not look like any of His creatures.  Hence, He is The Only One worthy of worship:

(He is the Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the earth.  How can He have a son when He has no consort (wife)? He created all things and He is the All-Knower of everything.  That is Allah, your Lord!  There is no god but He, the Creator of all things.  So worship Him (Alone), and He is the Trustee having power to dispose of all affairs).

                                                                                     Verse 6:101-102 of Surat Al-Anam (The Cattle) 

Unique Creation of Man:

Man is unique and unparalleled by any animal in animal kingdom in the followings:

1        Human genome is unique among all animals, and does not support Darwin evolutionary theory of monogenesis of animals coming out of one organism; the genes are the preserving units of the species since its original creation and existence.   In a 2009 review article entitled “Darwinian evolution in the light of genomics”, published in Nucleic Acid Research, Eugene V Koonin concluded, “There is no consistent tendency of evolution towards increased genomic complexity” through mutation as expected with current evolutionary theories.  Mechanisms of evolution remain beyond any known natural law.  Furthermore, the claim of special similarity between the genome of Man and Chimpanzees is False, since chimp’s genome has not been plotted yet, and such similarity is aminor matter not dissimilar from that of Man with other animals’ genome.

2        Man’s erect position with the freedom of upper limbs (for movement).

3        Thumb opposition to the rest of hand fingers enables man to carry out fine movements with precision, such as writing, calligraphy, typing on the typing machine or on the computer key-board, drawing, musical rendition, and buttoning the shirt, etc.  Hence, accidental loss of the thumb represents 50-60% of the total hand functional/physiological loss (for the purpose of medico-legal compensation), while loss of one finger of other 4 fingers represents 10% of the total hand functional loss.

4        Geometric spatial shape of human larynx and vocal cords enables man of pronunciation of letters and words, constructing a language that forms the basis of his social development. Add to this, Man’s ability to read (see below).

5        Brain weight and the unusual growth of cerebral cortex enable man to control and inhibit his human behaviour according to the values and morals that man believes in.  Human cerebral cortex is far more complicated than any animal; it performs many functions, such as reading, reflection, imagination, thinking and believing. These functions collectively attribute to the human Mind.

6        Human Spirituality (consciousness, piety and worshipping) and emotions (Man cries and laughs).  Spirituality was the decisive factor separating Wallace from Darwin.

Despite that Wallace believed in ‘natural selection’, he was a spiritualist.  He maintained that ‘natural selection’ cannot account for mathematical, artistic, or musical genius, as well as metaphysical musings, and wit and humour. Furthermore, he believed that natural selection was insufficient to explain the development of consciousness.   He eventually said that something in "the unseen universe of Spirit" had interceded at least three times in history.

  1. The first was the creation of life from inorganic matter.
  2. The second was the introduction of consciousness in the higher animals.
  3. And the third was the generation of the higher mental faculties in mankind.

He also believed that the raison d'être (underlying principle/basis) of the universe was the development of the human spirit. These views greatly disturbed Darwin, who argued that spiritual appeals were not necessary and that ‘sexual selection’ could easily explain apparently non-adaptive mental phenomena. Wallace's  public advocacy of spiritualism strained his relationships with previously friendly scientists who based their ideology purely on material basis, such as Henry Bates, Thomas Huxley, and even Darwin, who felt that Wallace was overly credulous!!! 

Sustenance of Man and Subjection of Universe for Man:

Allah has guarteed the sustenance of all creatures including the Mankind with all races and colours; thus Allah says: 

(And in heaven is your Sustenance, and that which you are promised.  Then by the Lord of heaven and earth, it is the very Truth, as much as the fact that you can speak intelligently to each other).                                     Verse 51:22-23 of Surat Adh-Dhariyat (The Winds that Scatters)

Allah Most High says: (It is He Who created for you all things that are on earth)

                                                                                    Verse 2:29 of Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow) 

Thus Allah has created Man as His vicegerent, and at the same time He created in earth everything that Man needs.   Furthermore, Allah created Man, while everything in Heavens and Earth were created and subjected for Man’s service, therefore, Man and subjected things were all the creation of God:   (And has subjected to you , as )a kindness( from Him, all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth; Behold in that are signs indeed for those who reflect)               

                                                                                  Verse 45:13 of  Surat Al-Jathiyah (TheKneeling) 

 

Also Allah (God) secures the provisions and sustenance of all creatures, including Man in his various races and colours; Allah Most High says:

 (Say “Who gives you provision from the heavens and the earth?” Say: Allah.)

                                                                                                   Verse 34:24 of Surat Saba’ (Sheba)

 

(And so many a moving (living) creature carries not its own provision! Allah provides for it and for you. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower)

                                                                                   Verse 29:60 of Surat Al-Ankabut (The Spider)

 

(And kill not your children for fear of poverty. We shall provide for them as well as for you. Surely, the killing of them is a great sin)    Verse 17: 31 of Surat Al-Isra’ (The Journey)

This is the complete undermining of Malthus theory regarding the scarcity of natural (food) resources in relation to increasing human population.

(Retrieved from the 'Introduction to Paradise Dictionary' by Prof Dr M Al-Fallouji, Chapter 3: Racism between two Languages - A Critical Review) 

 

 
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