Calendar
London
Makkah
Natural History Image Slideshow
bismillah
1274270471
878244547

Natural History

True Islamic Evolution - Facts before, above, and beyond Darwin's Theory of Evolution - 1

Rejection of Islam to Darwinism and Social Darwinism (Scientific Racism!)

It is the misrepresented Christianity that clashed with the true science through the Catholic Church Inquisition Tribunals that tortured and killed scientists (such as Servetus and Galileo) and provoked scientists (as a result of a reaction) into rejection of Church’s authority and violent practices, and to separate the Church from politics and life compartmentalising it to the personal affairs only (i.e. it was a wrong that led to another wrong; and the two wrongs doesn’t make it right). Thus scientists started in fabricating false theories and dialectical philosophies for the sake of challenging Christianity as a religion and through it symbolising to any religion (mistakenly thinking that Islam – which is the only true religion and comprehensive code of life- does not principally differ from their deviated corrupted Christianity).    

It is astounding that an evolutionist like Dr Richard Dawkins can describe the ‘natural selection’ as the omnipotent creator of all creatures in this universe (Dawkin’s book: The Blind Watchmaker). According to him, Natural selection is the blind watchmaker, blind because it does not see ahead, does not plan consequences, has no purpose in view.  Yet the living results of natural selection overwhelmingly impress us with the appearance of designs if by a master watchmaker, impress us with the illusion of design and planning.  Dawkin defies God Intelligent Design, calling instead Good Design (replacing God with ‘Good’).  According to him, the nature can think, select, design, and create; all are the attributes of God (just but by name); his hypersensitivity to use the name of God, and replacing Him with that of ‘nature’ can only explained by his bitter experience with the Christian Church practices in History.    Indeed, Dr Richard Dawkins’ The God Delusion (by Bantam Press, London, 2007, page 37) says:  (For most of my purposes…unless otherwise stated, I shall have Christianity mostly in mind, but only because it is the version with which I happen to be most familiar).

Conversely, it is the Roman Catholics and Catholicism (among all other religions) who felt the brunt of such an attack, as one can see in Scott Hahn and Benjamin Wiker’s Answering the new Atheism – Dismantling Dawkins’ Case Against God  (published by Emmaus Road Publishing, Ohio, USA, 2008, page 8) who say:  (On his part, Dawkins states that his case against religion is mainly a case against Christianity, and we will assume this as well).

 

As for Islam, which is beyond the reach of Dawkin and others, it is a code of modesty between  the 2 extremes of Church practices and modern Science Fanaticism, because Islam is the only true religion of God that was protected from human manipulation (protected by God himself).  It is the Islamic World which had adopted the full spectrum of scientists; many of the linguistics, Islamic scholars and judges were themselves physicians, architects, and scientists of sociology, zoology and botany (like Averroes, the Andalusian judge and physician; Ibn Khaldun, the judge, historian and sociologist; and Al-Jahiz -or al-Jahidh-, the linguistic and zoologist), and all start their books by the name of Allah then praising Allah then asking Allah’s pleasure with Prophet Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, then they start quoting excerpts from Qur’an and Prophetic Sunnah (Tradition) to consolidate their scientific writings. The Islamic World never knew the dichotomy of religion and science, or that science conflicted with religion; this schism started originally in the West after Roman Catholic Inquisition Tribunals in medieval dark Europe, which Islam had enlightened, because Islam is the religion of faith and science. Islam had never ever conflicted with biological sciences, on the contrary, Qur’an itself was always the source of scientific inspirations (Read Qur’an Miracles in Chapter Three).  

 

Islam put 5 broad principles in the lucid and beautiful Arabic language of Qur’an:

         

1.   All mankind is from Adam (Independent Human monogenesis)

After the convoluted journey of Social Darwinism with its most dangerous path in the history of Mankind, Islam stands high and rejects Pseudo-Scientific racism in any shape or form.  Man is the man wherever he is; all mankind is Allah’s creation; He (Allah) created them from two parents who had procreated and populated the Earth and became different nations and tribes, after acclimatising to different environments, adapted to different life-styles, and accustomed to different languages; they became different, only to be re-introduced and know each other.  They must be distinguished according to their character, ideology, and qualities of culture, (these are things that they can control themselves); they  should not be classified according to their inborn characteristics, such as colour, shape, figure, look, and height (which are things that they cannot control themselves). 

Allah Most High says:      

“O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another; verily, the most honourable of you with God (Allah) is the believer who is most pious; verily, God (Allah) is All-Knowing, Well-Acquainted (with all things)".                                                               Verse 49:13 of Surat Al-Hujurat (The Dwellings) 

 

On the authority of Jabir that Prophet Muhammad said in the 'Final Sermon' [shortly before his death, addressing the 120,000 attendant followers]:

“O People, Your God is One, and Your Father is One; There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-­Arab, or for a non­-Arab over an Arab; also there is no superiority for a white (Red) over black, nor for a black over white, except by piety (and good action)”.            

                                                           Narrated by Imam Baihaqi (4/289), Imam Ahmad (23489),

                                                                        Albani’s considered it Sahih (correct Hadith)

In another Hadith: 

All people are the children of Adam, and Adam is [originally] from dust”.

Narrated by Imam, Abu Dawod and Tirmithi and Baihaqi

In Muslim prayers, there is a practical application daily for the equality of all people standing before Allah, irrespective of their colour and race (black or white: Arab or non-Arab).  In the Pilgrimage too, there is a unique international application of equality between various races of Mankind, where millions of pilgrims came in their life-journey to gather in one place, wearing one white dress, in order to perform pilgrimage. Western Muslim converts who attended pilgrimage (e.g. Malcolm X, the black leader), returned home amazed by what they had witnessed of absolute equality between various races of Adam children; they then became passionate preachers for Islam, because Islam, among all religions, philosophies, and civilizations, is the only one to implement equality between the all members of Mankind in the World of Reality, and for the first time in History.

2.   Undermining the basis of Racism

Also Islam undermines all the foundations and causes of the racial differences, based on Man’s colour, look, shape, figure, and mood; life is colours, and variety is the spice of life as they say:

On the authority of Abu Musa, the Prophet peace upon him, said: “Allah has created Adam from a handful He got from all components of  Earth, thus children of Adam came according to that Earth component, among them came the Red, the white, the black, and the intermediate; and the good and the bad and intermediate”. 

                                                                    Narrated by Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawod, and Tirmithi,

   Tirmithi said: it is Hasan Sahih (correct good Hadith)

This Hadith is closely related to the statement by Allah in the Qur’an about the role of water for life and about the relationship between the colours of  mountains of the Earth, and the colours of humans, fruits, insects (and beasts), and animals:

 

(See you not that Allah sends down rainwater from the sky? and We produce therewith fruits of various colours, and among the mountains are tracts white and red, of varying colours and black intense in hue.  And likewise of men and beasts [including moving living creatures and insects], and cattle, are of various colours.  It is only those who have knowledge among His servants that truly fear Allah. Verily, Allah is Exalted in Might, Oft-Forgiving).

                                                               Verse 35:27-28 of Surat Fatir (The Originator of Creation)

Islam refers to the fact that Mankind with its various races and colours, is one Human race coming from one offspring: Adam and Eve; Allah repeatedly refers to human Mankind as “Adam’s Children” (to confirm the unity of Mankind) and asked them to be the witnesses for his Lordship. 

Allah Most High says:

(And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their loins, their seeds (or descendants), and made them testify as to themselves, (saying): “Am I not your Lord (Who cherishes and sustains you)?”  They said: “Yes! We testify!” (This), lest you should say on the Day of Judgement: “verily, we have been unaware of this”).    

                                                                                   Verse 7: 172 of Surat Al-A’raf (or The Heights)

Abu Huraira reported that Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) had said: "Verily Allah does not look to your bodies nor to your faces (appearances), and to your wealth, but He looks to your hearts and to your deeds".                                Narrated by Sahih Muslim Number 2564

Furthermore, Islam considered a big sin to look down at the members of other different races of the human Mankind:

It is narrated on the authority of Abdullah bin Mas’ud that Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said:  “Whosoever has pride in his heart equal to the weight of an atom (or a small ant) shall not enter Paradise. A person (amongst the audience) said: ‘Verily, a person loves that his dress should be beautiful, and his shoes should be beautiful’.  He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: “Verily, Allah is the Most Beautiful and He loves Beauty. Pride is to completely disregard the truth (out of self-conceit) and contempt for (to scorn or look down upon) the people”.

                                                                                                    Narrated by Sahih Muslim Number 91

Pride is the offspring of self-conceit, and this is the very negation of faith. Pride and faith cannot thus go together.  It inoculates in man the spirit of humility and submission to Truth. Pride is the expression of vanity which is one of the greatest hurdles into the path of truth. The self-conceited man accepts nothing which does not satisfy his vanity and, therefore, he cannot be a true believer.  He is a worshipper of his own self. 

 

3.    Honouring Children of Adam (whole Mankind) with its different races  

Allah Most High said in respect of Mankind in its various spectra, races, colours, and shapes:

(We have honoured the sons of Adam; provided them with transport on land and sea; given them for sustenance things good and pure; and conferred on them special favours, above a great part of Our Creation.)                                                       Surat Al-Isra’ (The Journey) 17:70

Hence, among Prophet Muhammad’s companions were: Abu Bakr, the white; Bilal, the black Abyssinian, who was a slave and became a master in Islam (he is also the Prophet’s personal Muezzin); Suhaib, the red Roman who was one of the great Muhajirs (the emigrants from Makkah to Medina); and Salman, the brunet Persian (For more, read Chapter Three).

Furthermore, the respect of Islam for the humanity of the Man, whoever he is, and irrespective of his creed, culture and religion, established a milestone in unique religious tolerance for the first in the whole history; It is quoted that:

 

The Prophet (peace be upon him) stood one day for a (passing) funeral

He was told: O’ Messenger of Allah, it is Jewish funeral!

He (the Prophet) replied: “Is it not a human?!”       Narrated by both Bukhari (1312) and Muslim (961)

                                                                                                                                          under Funeral sections

Also Islam prohibits its Muslim followers (within Islamic nation, formed of various colours and racial backgrounds) from derision and mockery of each others; Allah Most High says:      

“O you who believe! Let not a group scoff (laugh) at another group, it may that the latter are better than the former. Nor let some women scoff at other women, it may be that the latter are better than the former. Nor defame one another, nor insult one another by (offensive) nicknames. How bad is it to insult one’s brother after having Faith [i.e. to call your Muslim brother (a faithful believer) as: ‘O sinner’, or ‘O wicked’]. And whosever does not repent, then such are indeed Zalimun (wrong-doers)”.            Verse 49:11 of Surat Al-Hujurat (The Dwellings) 

Abu Huraira reported that Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) had said:

"Don’t nurse malice against each other, don’t nurse aversion against one another, also don’t be inquisitive about one another, and don’t outbid one another (by praising the good) and be fellow-brothers and servants of Allah".                      Narrated by Sahih Muslim Number 2563

On the authority of A’mash with the same chain of transmitters (and the words are):

“Don’t sever relations of kinship, don’t bear enmity against one another, also bear aversion against one another, and don’t feel envy against the other. Live as fellow-brothers as Allah has commanded you”.                               Narrated by Sahih Muslim Number 2563

 

(Retrieved from the 'Introduction to Paradise Dictionary' by Prof Dr M Al-Fallouji, Chapter 3: Racism between two Languages - A Critical Review)


 

Evolution and Fallacies of Anthropology -2

Another Human zoo specimen Saartjie "Sarah" Baartman (Saartjie, pronounced "Sahr-chey"): born in Eastern Cape, South Africa (1789 – 29 Dec 1815) was exhibited (for her unusual body features) as sideshow attractions in 19th century Europe under the name Hottentot Venus—"Hottentot" as the then-current name for the Khoikhoi people, (now considered offensive)  and "Venus" in reference to the Roman goddess of love. Baartman was a slave of Dutch farmers near Cape Town when the brother of her slave owner, suggested that she travel to England for exhibition, promising her that she would become wealthy.  She left for London in 1810.  Baartman was exhibited around Britain, forced to entertain people by gyrating her nude buttocks.  Her exhibition in London, scant years after the passing of the Slave Trade Act 1807, created a scandal.            

images343

A caricature of Saartjie Baartman, (the Hottentot Venus)

She was then sold to a Frenchman, who took her to France, and exhibited her under more pressured conditions for 15 months.  French naturalists, among them Georges Cuvier, visited her and she was the subject of several scientific paintings. Once her novelty had worn off on Parisians, she began to drink heavily and was forced into prostitution to support herself. She died earlier than expected on 29 Dec 1815, aged 26, of pneumonia.  An autopsy was conducted, and published in 1816 and then republished by French naturalist Georges Cuvier in the Memoires du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in 1817.  Cuvier notes in his monograph that Baartman was an intelligent woman who had an excellent memory and spoke Dutch fluently.  Her skeleton, preserved genitals and brain were placed on display in Paris' Musée de l'Homme until 1974, when they were removed from public view and stored out of sight; a moulded casting was still shown for the following two years.  The case became prominent after Stephen Jay Gould (an American palaeontologist) wrote The Hottentot Venus in the 1980s.  After the victory of the African National Congress in the South African general election, 1994, President Nelson Mandela formally requested that France return the remains. After much legal wrangling and debates in the French National Assembly, France acceded to the request on 6 March 2002. Her remains were repatriated to her homeland, on 6 May 2002 and she was finally laid to rest on 9 Aug 2002 over 200 years after her birth.                            

Even today, and after the election of Barak Obama, the first black President of United States of America in year 2009, racism remained as an important motivation driving many decision-makers in the united nations, heads of European States, leaders of European parties, the media, white judges in the courts, the employers in official and private establishments, the Police, the Army, and even in the scientific examinations, recruitment and decisions about who gets allowances and merit awards, driving such decision-makers (often, if not always) to stand discriminately unfairly and unjustly against the black and coloured subjects, biased secretly or publicly in favour of the white subjects.  Cinemas still show movies about fantasy disasters threatening the human race with temporary annihilation and extinction (e.g. following the impact of an incoming comet with the Earth). In their disaster plan, only the white superior (and clever) race is allowed to enter the shelters to be salvaged, so that they will re-populate the earth again (leaving behind, all the coloured and black inferior people to die, unaided)!

(Retrieved from the 'Introduction to Paradise Dictionary' by Prof Dr M Al-Fallouji, Chapter 3: Racism between two Languages - A Critical Review) 

 

Evolution and Fallacies of Anthropology -1

The anthropology had a great intellectual impact on the erosion and marginalisation of Christianity, which unfortunately did not rise up to the challenge.  Furthermore, Human zoos or ethnographic exhibitions or Negro villages became objects of anthropology and an important means of bolstering "popular racism”; they were so popular from the 1870s until World War II, and the concept survived into the 21st century.

British TV Channel 4's The Human Zoo: Science's Dirty Secret documentary aired on Sunday 1st November 2009:  in the 19th and early 20th centuries, scientists were so fascinated by race that thousands of 'exotic' and indigenous people were put on display in human zoos. They were not intended as merely entertaining freak shows but also scientific demonstrations of racial difference. Across the western world millions gawped in fascination at these 'uncivilised savages' and would depart convinced of the superiority of the white race.  Some of the most spectacular were in Paris, Chicago, Hamburg and London. In 1924, King George V and Queen Mary inspected live exhibits at British Empire Exhibition at  Wembley.

As the film reveals, it was only a short step from these human zoos to the horrors of Nazi Germany as pseudo-science that underpinned one, helped legitimise the other.

This documentary explores the phenomenon of human zoos and tells the poignant story of Ota Benga (c. 1883 – March 20, 1916), a Batwa pygmy from the Belgian Congo, who was brought to the United States through a missionary and businessman: Samuel Phillips Verner, who released Benga from slave traders in 1904 from  his Belgian capturers who had attacked his village, killing Benga's wife and two children.  Ota Benga was first put on display at the 1904 St Louis World's Fair and then the Bronx Zoo (USA) where he was put in an enclosure with a chimpanzee for a companion and labelled as the 'missing link' between apes and Europeans to promote the concepts of human evolution and scientific racism. Many early anthropologists believed that pygmies, because so different to the white race, represented an earlier stage of man's evolution from the ape. Public outcry eventually led to Benga's removal from the zoo, and he was released into the custody of African American clergy.                                  

Ota Benga would pass through the hands of four of America's leading scientists: the explorer Samuel Phillips Verner, the anthropologist William McGee, the zoologist William Temple Horniday and Madison Grant - one of America's greatest racists. When the outbreak of World War I made a return to the Congo impossible, Benga became depressed. In 1916, he committed suicide with a stolen revolver.

Grant was a wealthy conservationist and amateur anthropologist who had founded the Bronx Zoo. In 1906, he arranged for Ota Benga to be exhibited at the Zoo; an event designed not as a mere a side show but as a means to educate the masses about Scientific Racism.

1233.jpg     0.jpg      

Ota Benga at the Bronx Zoo in 1906              

When Madison Grant died in 1937, it is said that his family burned all of his papers. His remaining legacy is a book - The Passing of the Great Race . A bestseller when it was first published in 1916, it promoted the idea that the survival of the white master race - 'the Nordics' as Grant called them - was threatened by the lower races. A believer in eugenics, Grant argued that evolution should not be left to chance. He lobbied for laws banning interracial marriages and limiting immigration. These laws were passed by people softened up by human zoos and now susceptible to Grant's arguments.

Grant's arguments were to find followers all over the world. In 1930, after The Passing of the Great Race was translated into German, Grant was bestowed with what he regarded as one of his greatest honours.

Jon Marks, an anthropologist at the University of North Carolina explains: "Grant received a fan letter from an aspiring politician in Germany, which said, your book is my bible, signed Adolf Hitler. Grant's correspondence has disappeared; that letter is not with us anymore. But there is eyewitness testimony that he brandished this letter at, at people to show how great and how influential both he was and how seriously the Germans were taking his ideas, which is something he was proud of."

Three years later, Hitler seized power in Germany and turned his hero's ideas into policy. The Nazis set about using scientific racism as the foundation of the Third Reich taking the ideas that were promoted in human zoos further than anyone else and instituting a systematic elimination of 'inferior' races, in the defence of their own superior, Aryan race.

In 1947, at the Nuremburg War Trials, Nazi doctors named Grant and his book in their defence - arguing that the Third Reich had merely been copying American ideas. In the wake of the Holocaust, mixing race and science became taboo and the ideas of Madison Grant and the early anthropologists were buried.

Anthropologists such as Madison Grant or Alexis Carrel built their pseudo-scientific racism, inspired by Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-55) believing in the superiority of white European race (intellectual power over others) and that race mixing led to the collapse of civilization.  In 1935, Carrel published a best-selling book titled L'Homme, cet inconnu (Man, The Unknown) which advocated, in part, that mankind could better itself by following the guidance of an elite group of intellectuals, and by implementing a regime of enforced eugenics. Carrel argued that "deviant" human types should be suppressed using techniques similar to those later employed by the Nazis (adult euthanasia). In the 1936 preface to the German edition of his book, Alexis Carrel added praise to the eugenics policies of the Third Reich, writing that: (the German government has taken energetic measures against the propagation of the defective, the mentally diseased, and the criminal).

(Retrieved from the 'Introduction to Paradise Dictionary' by Prof Dr M Al-Fallouji, Chapter 3: Racism between two Languages - A Critical Review)

 

Islam between Darwinism (Evolution Theory) and Social Darwinism (Scientific Racism)

From Malthus to Darwin and Evolution of Social Darwinism (or Scientific Racism!) 

The nation’s history and its values are reflected in its linguistic vocabulary.  The English language (like the Arabic language) is greatly influenced by its surrounding environment; its history is intimately linked to the history of western culture and its progress throughout various era of history.

Thomas Robert Malthus (1766 –1834), a British economist wrote in 1798 ‘An Essay on the Principle of Population’; he saw such ideas of endless progress towards a utopian society as vitiated because of the dangers of population growth: "The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man: Population, when unchecked, increases in a geometrical ratio. Subsistence increases only in an arithmetical ratio. A slight acquaintance with numbers will show the immensity of the first power in comparison with the second".  As an Anglican clergyman and Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge (elected in 1793), Malthus saw that egalitarian societies were prone to over-population, Malthus wrote in dramatic terms: "epidemics, pestilence and plague advance in terrific array, and sweep off their thousands and ten thousands. Should success be still incomplete, gigantic famine stalks in the rear, and with one mighty blow, levels the population with the food of the world".  Malthus criticised the Poor Laws and argued that population was held within resource limits by two types of checks: positive ones, which raised the death rate (hunger, disease and war), and preventative ones, which lowered the birth rate, such as abortion, birth control, prostitution, postponement of marriage, and celibacy (sexual abstinence).

Malthus argued that as an increasing population would normally outgrow its food supply, this would result in the starvation of the weakest – called Malthusian Catastrophe (or Malthusian crisis).  European historians still describe that the Spanish and European colonisation of Americas and the killing of its native people came as a result of Malthusian crisis!!!

While others regarded fertility as an economic advantage, because it increased the number of workers available for work, however, Malthus stood against it because he thought that even though fertility might increase the gross output, it tended to reduce output per capita.

He further argued that as the supply of labour increases with the increased population-growth at a constant labour demand, the wages earned would decrease eventually to subsistence, where birth-rate equals death-rate, resulting in no growth in population

Malthus however, assumed a constant labour-demand in his assessment of England, and in doing so he ignored the effects of industrialization, which increased the level of technology and production, causing an increase in labour-demand.

He proposed the gradual abolition of  Poor Laws by gradually reducing the number of persons qualifying for relief (Relief in dire distress would come from private charity). He reasoned that poor relief acted against the longer-term interests of the poor by reducing the number of workers and thus raising the price of commodities and undermining the independence and resilience of the peasant.  In other words, ‘the Poor Laws’ tended to "create the poor which they maintain".

He also supported the Corn Laws, which introduced a system of taxes on British imports of wheat. He thought these measures would encourage domestic production, and so promote long-term benefit. By encouraging domestic production, Malthus argued, the Corn Laws would guarantee British self-sufficiency in food

 

Defects of Malthus Theory:

Malthus predicted a population crisis in mid-19 century, but nothing came!  The neo-Malthusians in The Limits to Growth in 1972 predict another crisis, also erroneously.

Furthermore, attempts to limit the human growth by family planning are interventional and can be draconian (e.g. mass sterilization, or China’s one-child policy) are often rejected by people naturally.  Recently, the phenomenon of “feminization of nature” (because of the widespread chemical contamination of universe), is becoming an epidemic, resulting in infertility spreading like the plague (see Deborah Cadbury’s: The Feminization of Nature, Hamish Hamilton (Penguin), London 1997). Furthermore, the Economist (Oct/Nov 2009 issue, pages 35-38) published an article on falling fertility and how the population problem is solving itself, reducing the world’s numbers from 9.2 billion in 2050 to 8.5 billion. The article made a link between wealthy rich families and lowered fertility, and vice versa; it states that wealth lowers fertility and lower fertility causes wealth.  Colonisation of the New World by Europeans driven by Malthusian vision resulted in an insatiable greed for food, for money, for power, and for domination of the others (as if it is the birth right of the white superior race – see below).  New World Colonization has indeed, resulted in initial annihilation of the Native American population with an acute shortage of working men population, and consequently increased demand for imported African slaves (i.e. many displaced by force from their countries) in order to solve the plantations problems to grow, on a massive scale, various crops of cotton, coffee, tobacco, sugar cane, sisal, various oil seeds, and rubber trees.  Millions of slaves were also needed to accomplish colonial industrialization dreams, e.g. construction of Panama Canal alone ended in massive death of 28000 workers (because of yellow fever, malaria, and mudslides). 

In fact, the Problem is not the rapid population growth (as Malthusians consider), but in the inequitable distribution among the population.  More importantly, good planning results usually in food over-production; in other word, the principal problem lies in the overproduction and mal-distribution.  The individual portion of food, and indeed the human meals had become much bigger than before; the morbid obesity is now becoming ‘epidemic’ in proportion.  Indeed, the media are more concerned about the mountains of stored butter and cheese, melting away and/or disposed off (e.g. thrown in the sea) in order to fix the commodity prices at a high level, because of market forces: supply and demand.   Similarly, there are mountains of grains (wheat, barley, oat), and lakes of milk and honey (not to mention lakes of wine); none of this surplus in food overproduction is being distributed equally at home and/or dispatched to poor countries.

Despite all these defects of Malthus theory, however Malthus had influenced politicians and decision-makers of colonisation of the New World to wage wars as a means of depopulation of the poor race for the advantage of the superior European white race settlers (enhancing the Euro-centric view of the world).  In 1805 Malthus became Professor of History and Political Economy at the East India Company College (now known as Haileybury) in Hertfordshire (His students affectionately referred to him as "Pop" or "Population" Malthus).

Malthusian theory influenced the policy of British East India Company (James Mill, the Governor-General of India - in office 1828-1835, himself was a friend and a great admirer of Malthus).  Another distinguished Malthusian was the British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger (in office: 1783–1801 and 1804–1806), after reading the work of Malthus promptly withdrew a Bill he had introduced calling for the extension of Poor Relief.   But more importantly, Malthusian social theory became the canon of socioeconomic theory that influenced the idea of the survival of the fittest, a term coined by anthropologist Herbert Spencer (1820–1903), or "The Gospel of Wealth" theory written by Andrew Carnegie.

Spencer’s term ‘survival for the fittest’ inspired Charles Darwin, who with his co-discoverer Alfred Russel Wallace propounded their Theory of ‘Natural Selection’.  However, when Wallace met Darwin, he gave him the draft of his scientific paper.  Although Wallace's first letters to Darwin have been lost, Wallace carefully kept the letters he received. In the first letter, dated 1 May 1857, Darwin commented that Wallace's letter of 10 October which he had recently received, as well as Wallace's paper "On the Law which has regulated the Introduction of New Species" of 1855, showed that the ‘natural selection’ was Wallace’s idea adopted or plagiarized by Darwin, who attributed it to himself, despite that he initially praised Wallace, claiming that both were thinking alike and to some extent reaching similar conclusions, and said that he was preparing his own work for publication in two years time.   Wallace’s family, like many Scottish Wallaces, claimed a connection to William Wallace, a Scottish leader during the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 13th century.  His advocacy of Spiritualism and his belief in a non-material origin for the higher mental faculties of humans strained his relationship with Darwin and with the scientific establishment, especially with other proponents of evolution.

Spencer's major work, Progress: Its Law and Cause (1857) was released 2 years before the publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species, and First Principles was printed in 1860.  Conversely, Spencer (a contemporary of Darwin) had later used Darwin’s evolution theory in the 1870s, introducing the idea of ‘social evolution’ in attempt to scientifically formalize social thinking.  Spencer applied social evolution to all areas of human endeavour, promoting an optimistic view of the future as inevitably becoming better.  Spencer’s ‘Social Evolutionism’ was later influenced by the ‘biological theory of evolution’ to propound the erroneous concept of Social Darwinism.  Indeed, the 1798 Malthus's work An Essay on the Principle of Population was incredibly popular and widely read by social Darwinists. 

Darwin and Wallace both read and acknowledged the role played by Malthus in the development of their own ideas.  Darwin read Malthus' famous Essay on a Principle of Population in 1838, four years after Malthus' death. Darwin referred to Malthus as "that great philosopher", and said: "This is the doctrine of Malthus, applied with manifold force to the animal and vegetable kingdoms, for in this case there can be no artificial increase of food, and no prudential restraint from marriage". Wallace stated: "But perhaps the most important book I read was Malthus's Principles of Population”.

 

Eugenics, was proposed by Darwin's cousin, Francis Galton, in 1865 and 1869. The word eugenics derives from the Greek word eu (good or well) and the suffix -genēs (born), and was coined by Sir Francis Galton in 1883, who defined it as "the study of all agencies under human control which can improve or impair the racial quality of future generations". Galton argued that just as physical traits were clearly inherited among generations of people, so could be said for mental qualities (genius and talent). Galton argued that social morals needed to change so that heredity was a conscious decision, in order to avoid over-breeding by "less fit" members of society and the under-breeding of the "more fit" ones.

In Galton's view, social institutions such as welfare and insane asylums were allowing "inferior" humans to survive and reproduce at levels faster than the more "superior" humans in respectable society, and if corrections were not soon taken, society would be awash with "inferiors." 

The following passage from Malthus showed his influence on Galton, where Malthus suggests (in ‘An essay on the principle of population’. 1798, Chapter IX, p72) that the techniques of animal husbandry could apply to humans, anticipating the idea which, in 1883, Francis Galton called eugenics:

It does not... by any means seem impossible that by an attention to breed, a certain degree of improvement, similar to that among animals, might take place among men. Whether intellect could be communicated may be a matter of doubt; but size, strength, beauty, complexion, and perhaps longevity are in a degree transmissible... As the human race, however, could not be improved in this way without condemning all the bad specimens to celibacy, it is not probable that an attention to breed should ever become general.

Such theories, which often postulated a "master race", usually "Nordic" and "Aryan", were along with eugenics, pioneered by Sir Francis Galton (among others) and popularized at the turn of the 20th century, a main influence of the Nazi racial policies and their program of eugenicsGalton developed the science of eugenics whose primary concept was "control" and promotion of quantification and analytical measurements of "desirable traits" so as to set a guide on how to obtain the "truly proper breeding".   Apart from Arthur de Gobineau (one of the founder of "biological racism") who wrote in 1853  An Essay on The Inequality of Human Races”, other scientific racist works that largely influenced Nazism include Madison Grant’s 1916/1924 “The Passing of the Great Race” and Lothrop T. Stoddard’s 1920 “The Rising Tide of Color Against White World Supremacy”.  For the most part, however, scientific racism is a pejorative label sometimes given to modern theories or arguments that allege that scientific evidence shows significant evolutionary differences between races or ethnic groups.

Darwin read his cousin's work with interest, and devoted sections of Descent of Man to discussion of Galton's theories.

(Retrieved from the 'Introduction to Paradise Dictionary' by Prof Dr M Al-Fallouji, Chapter 3: Racism between two Languages - A Critical Review)

 

 
ArabicEnglish
Islamic_graphic_glitter_comments-_61lsilahaIslamic_graphic_glitter_comments-_61
La-Illaha
02zf7
sigpic430936_1